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通向新科学经济学

来源于 《比较》 2021年第6期 出版日期 2021年12月01日
文|帕萨·达斯古普塔保罗·戴维

8.结论

  本文回顾了对科学的经济学分析取得的最新进展及其深远的含义,并将这些概述为以下四个命题。

  (1)虽然管理开放科学行为的制度和社会规范不可能对研究努力做出最优配置,但从功能的角度来说,这些制度和规范能够很好地帮助实现科学知识存量长期增长最大化的目标,但受制于整个社会愿意为这一目标提供的资源。

  (2)然而,要想商业化地开发利用现有科学知识存量的技术潜力,以确保最大的经济租金流,现行的制度和社会规范完全不适用。不幸的是,为后一种(技术)目的设计一套截然不同的制度安排以及研究人员的不同行为模式,并没有解决如下问题:确保开放科学研究拥有合理数量的资源。在此,充分的公共支持是至关重要的,也是合情合理的。

  (3)在不同的规则和奖励制度(一种管理高校的科研人员,一种管理产业界的科研人员和工程师)下组织研究,不仅使致力于科学进步的研究者和致力于技术进步的研究者相互之间发展出共生关系,而且使当今的每个求知者共同体和整个社会都受益匪浅。

  (4)为我们的社会发挥这些重要功能的制度机制是错综复杂的,有些部分甚至是粗制滥造的;如果提供给开放科学的资助水平出现下降,这一机制的脆弱和敏感程度可能会超出人们通常的想象。虽说科学共和国内部负责资源配置的社会机制对现代经济和政治来说非常重要,但人们对这些机制还是知之甚少,而且,如果为追求国家经济更快增长或军事更加安全而过于随意地开展不稳定且有潜在破坏性的科学实验,也容易对这些机制产生影响。

  上述命题提供了一些基本原则,在探讨科学和技术政策决策者权限范围内的具体问题和提议时,可以提供指导。显然,这些命题过于笼统,并不是积极的政策药方,而是主要起到提醒作用。真要说它们有什么效用的话,也不在于指导我们对各种政策问题得出什么结论,而是告诉我们,具有科学可靠性的知识是一种非常特殊的资产,只有掌握了组织该资产生产和分配的专门制度结构的逻辑和表现,科学经济学才能帮助制定更好的科学和技术政策。

  (陆殷莉译)

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